Initially, the English would discriminate based on class, and poor people of all races were basically put in the same category. There was a shift later where much of the discrimination was based on race, and many people, white servants included, began to think of black servants as the lowest of the low and had bias and anger towards them. Conditions for slaves became increasingly worse, and the system became increasingly racist.
During the period in question, a shift is seen in the societal treatment of poor blacks and whites. The author argues that the initial system of mistreatment in the colonies (as well as in England), was based on economic standing. This shifted, however, to a racially driven system that was reflected in the treatment of African blacks being imported (through interracial slave laws and other such policies, as well as general mistreatment and disdain.
The English system of class segregation transfers over to Virginia where we see Houses of Correction like in England. The African slaves were at the very bottom of the class system along with the poor whites, but the Virginia colony decided that a clear barrier needed to be made. Captured and enslaved Indians and African slaves were grouped together as less than people where the poor whites were moved up above them. The system of segregation changed from a economic system to a race-oriented system, and this is where we see the beginning of chattel slavery.
The late 1600's marked a shift in slavery as Virginians began to buy larger numbers of Native American and black slaves. While before the lowest class was largely characterized based on lack of wealth, now the settlers were able to expand their contempt of Native Americans to contain blacks as well, and from this we see the rise of racism as we recognize it today.
Before race was thrown into the equation, the English had a clear distinction between the upper and lower class. Prior to Bacon's rebellion, it wasn't necessarily discrimination against specifically black people, it was more of a rank in class. But to reassure the white poor, the upper class created an illusion of higher standing based on race. To be black and poor seemed to be a worser fate than to be white and poor.
Before Bacon's rebellion, class was the prevailing form of prejudice in Virginia; the lowest classes, white and black, were seen by the aristocrats with equal contempt, mirroring the same resentment the upper class Englishman had towards the poor back in Britain, of being idle and irresponsible and not contributing to society. After the rebellion, Virginians in power feared another insurrection by the serving and slaving class working together. They introduced racism as a mechanism to divide the large lower class and artificially separate poor whites from enslaved blacks, as a means to keep the Virginian hierarchy more stable from future discontent by making the poor whites seem artificially higher.
The economic system in England mirrors over to Virginia, inspiring the system of slavery. As slavery became mostly consisted of blacks and Native Americans, racism began to appear. Whites were seen as freedmen, so when slaves became free they did not acquire the same rights that white citizens had.
As the society established in Virginia moved from indentured servitude towards a system of slavery, a separation in not only class but also race began to emerge. This came from the assersion of power created by the upper class and the slave owners and the relationship between those in the same level of power.
In this chapter, the divide between servitude and slavery becomes evident. Initially, the class structure in England was based on wealth, but as it continues to develop race begins to play a major role. Wealth becomes determined by labor and people, as servants are worked to contribute to a national economy. The ideas in which slavery are based upon become evident.
In this chapter, the author explains the shift from wealth discrimination to race. The system of indentured slavery evolved to cattle slavery and the divide of race became more evident. A clear contextualization is Bacon's Rebellion which paved way for the major shift.